For years, best practices have recommended long-term planning for organizational operations, upkeep of major assets and healthy continuity of business operations. A common caveat to long-term planning warns that forecasts exceeding 10 years may yield incorrect results. Hence, it is better to calculate forecasts for a 5 to 10 year period.
The market offers many tools for developing and maintaining a solid model to help with long-term planning. The tool one uses is not as important as the ability to insert all the crucial data needed to properly plan for the future. Most models consist of an Excel workbook with linked sheets and assumptions used in the calculation of future activities. An important task to remember is the gathering of all the available data that needs to be considered as one plans for future revenues and related costs.
The initial step needs to include a complete list of revenues generated by the organization. All revenues commonly generated by operational activities should be considered in the long-term plan model. In calculating the 5 to 10 year revenue projections, gathering 3 to 5 years of actual results and calculating an average amount per year is a good start.
Once all demographic and economic impacts have been determined, assumption ratios can be calculated. These assumption ratios will be helpful in growing revenue and costs amounts from year to year for up to 10 years.
Next step, information of all operational expenses needs to be gathered. Actual operational expenses for a 3 to 5 year period will help with the preparation of the long-term plan related to operational costs. As stated above, a yearly average for each type of expense should be calculated for the base year and the assumption ratios will similarly be applied to the base expense year to calculate expenses for the 5 to 10 years projections.
Final step, major improvements and replacements need to be considered for the same period of time that operational expenses are projected. It is highly recommended that an organization spread the cost of replacements over a period of time. Annual amounts should be calculated and a reserve should be funded annually to accumulate the amounts needed for these major purchases.
Once all the above information has been gathered, it’s time to create the plan. Start with a description of all revenues and costs to be forecasted. Separate operating costs from capital replacements and improvements so that operating net revenue can be displayed separately from reserve balances. Columns need to include actual results of activities for comparison with the forecasted amount.
Finally, your plan is created so the fun begins to see how actual results match up to your forecasts. GOOD LUCK!
Olivia Riley, CPA is CFO of the Town of Addison. Before joining the Town of Addison, Riley worked for the City of Cedar Park and spent 20 years in public accounting where she worked as an auditor for counties, school districts and cities. Riley is a member of TSCPA’s Board of Directors and former president of the Austin Chapter.
While the core purpose of professional associations like the Texas Society of CPAs (TSCPA) continues to be about helping members achieve success; member expectations about what that help should be continues to evolve. And like everything else in life these days, that evolution and change is occurring at an accelerating rate.
The TSCPA Executive Board received updates on two key task forces dealing with those changes. One task force is dealing with brand issues, so members know the TSCPA and its 20 local chapters work together to support our members. Another task force is looking at how TSCPA and chapters can help each other and be more efficient in serving those same joint members. Our members are all both a member of a local chapter and the state-level TSCPA; and member expectations cannot be successfully met by either organization on their own. Together, however we can provide a range of support, resources and experiences that will satisfy not only our existing members but draw new members to the paired organizations.
The TSCPA Executive Board also spent a significant amount of time diving into the future of continuing professional education (CPE). One of the hallmarks of our profession is the embracing of continuous learning by our members. We even embraced CPE in our requirements for continued licensure. The model of monitoring hours in a classroom or conference served us well for four decades, but the world has changed, and member expectations about how and when to receive CPE has changed with it. Three of the mega-trends impacting CPE include:
- Cost and quality of CPE are no longer directly correlated
- Participants expect just-in-time delivery of CPE topics
- Participants expect interaction in their CPE
TSCPA is working on a CPE specific strategic plan to address these and other changes to CPE to ensure our members continue to be able to look to TSCPA and their local chapter as a key enabler of their continuous learning throughout their careers.
The TSCPA Executive Board meeting covered several other topics including the report from the Texas sunset commission. The good news is that the sunset commission recommended the continuation of the Texas State Board of Public Accountancy (TSBPA), so your license is safe for another 12 years. In my next blog I will go into more detail about all the recommendations from the sunset commission about the future operations of the TSBPA.
If you are a sole proprietor with a staff of one, you don’t have to worry about workplace issues among employees. If you work in any other size office, you may have to deal with issues between employees. I’m not talking about honest disagreements about how to best serve customers or grow the business. I’m talking about the possibility of one employee intimidating, discriminating against or harassing another employee. It seems like every day another headline comes out about a high-level individual either committing those acts or not handling the situations appropriately when it was brought to their attention. The list seems to be endless; John Schnatter, Les Moonves and Urban Meyer are just the latest high-powered individuals to be caught up in the results of bad behavior. But, bad behavior does not just occur at the top. Behavior that can disrupt or even take down a business can occur at all levels. That is why every business must do three things.
First, have a policy about such behavior. Having such a policy sounds obvious, but many smaller businesses don’t bother with such things because “everyone knows what to do.” The short answer is if you don’t tell them what is wrong, the defense will be “I didn’t know we couldn’t do that.” The policy does not have to be a detailed list; a few sentences will do. And, have every employee acknowledge they have read the policy every year.
Second, have a way for people to report incidents, a process for investigating the incidents and a plan for taking action based on those investigations. While asking the person to first report incidents to their supervisor is good, there have to be other paths because it might be the supervisor or the supervisor’s supervisor that is exhibiting the bad behavior. Asking someone to confront their perpetrator does not work. While some people do make up charges to get a person in trouble, a vast majority of the time, the reported behavior really occurred, so the behavior must be dealt with. Telling people to just act better is not enough, especially if the offense is truly serious or has occurred multiple times. Every business needs to be prepared to discipline or even fire the offending employees.
Third, make sure everyone knows it is their responsibility to report bad behavior. The person suffering at the hands of another employee may first reach out to a co-worker or a different supervisor. It is not enough to tell the person they need to report the employee harassing them. Employees need to know if they are told about bad behavior, they need to report the behavior as well. Reporting bad behavior is not about retribution. Reporting is about doing what is best for the business and making sure all the other stakeholders are protected. That protection is everyone’s responsibility.
As CPAs we take pride in our integrity and our pledge to put the public interest ahead of our personal gain. In today’s world, where business reputation is as important as publishing accurate financial results, are you ready to step up and make sure the business is protected from employees doing bad things?
One of the highlights of TSCPA’s Annual Meeting of Members was a presentation by Bill Reeb, CPA, CITP, CGMA and Vice Chair of the AICPA. Bill covered several issues impacting the profession in this age of ever accelerating change and progress. I was pleased to hear Bill say one of his goals is to make sure we leave our aspiring and recently certified CPAs a profession that is as good as or better than the profession that was left to us by our predecessors. That desire is one of the reason I am active at the international, national, state and local levels of the profession.
In many aspects, the profession is doing as well as ever today. Our members are financially successful with skills and services that are in high demand. Such a position tends to make one complacent, but instead we need to take our current success and build on it. We need to disintermediate ourselves before someone else does it to us. Change is happening. By 2027 (that is only eight and a half years away,) 75% of the companies in the S&P 500 may no longer be there. Companies that are unwilling to change don’t continue to be successful, they go away. In fact, disruption used to be seen as a challenge to companies but now 74% of CEOs say their businesses aim to be disruptors, and 65% of CEOs say disruption is an opportunity. There are many external forces driving changes in the profession including:
- Global insatiability
- Regulatory complexity
- Technology and cyber issues
- Workforce changes
- Financial challenges worldwide
We live the profession every day and it looks the same to us, but someone looking in from the outside sees the change. Think of the time you had a puppy. You don’t really see the changes because you live with the puppy every day, but your friend who only comes over every couple of weeks notices how much change has occurred each time she visits. The profession is changing radically in both what is expected from it and what it does. The top three skills finance executives now look for in auditors include:
- Technology skills (67% say they are necessary)
- Communication skills (66% say they are necessary)
- Critical thinking/judgment skills (65% say they are necessary)
The percent of CFOS saying these skills are necessary have all increased by double digits since 2014.
When it comes to reporting, the future is moving beyond just financial reports. While not big in the U.S. yet, globally there is a lot of interest in integrated reporting. But even in the U.S., reporting on topics such as sustainability is growing exponentially with 82% of the S&P 500 publishing a sustainability report in 2016. Even more to the point, 73% of portfolio managers consider sustainability when making investment decisions, and 69% believe sustainability reporting should be subject to independent assurance. The question for the profession is are we going to be the ones to provide that assurance or are we going to leave it to others?
Another area where our existing skills provide us an edge, but we need to develop more skills, is around valuation work. Eighty-seven percent of the S&P 500 value consists of intangible assets; something that is not consistently measured in financial statements. And even when intangibles are measured and subject to audit, we don’t always get it right. Thirty-one percent of the deficiencies cited by the PCAOB in 2017 related to fair value measurements. We can argue that valuations shouldn’t be a big part of financial reporting, but if valuation of intangibles is what is driving the value of companies today, we can decide as a profession to either ride the wave or get beat up by it. As one who has spent a decent amount of time at the beach, I can tell you riding the wave is much more fun.
There is so much more I can talk about, but I think you get the idea that these are exciting times for the profession. We are privileged to be part of a successful profession with a bright future, but it will stay that way only if we keep changing with the times.
One great session at the TSCPA Annual Meeting of Members was an optional CPE session on the Changing Face of Internal Fraud presented by Steve Dawson, CPA, CFE. The session addressed all three corners of the Fraud Triangle – Incentive/Pressure, Rationalization and Opportunity. This blog will briefly cover each corner.
Incentive/Pressure can come from internal aspects such as compensation plans, but most often the pressure to commit fraud comes from outside the organization. The person committing fraud has some perceived financial need that cannot be shared and can only be resolved by committing fraud. Need may come from something bad like a gambling or drug habit, but it does not necessarily imply financial hardship. The “need” may be to show success by having money to buy a new boat or take fancy trips. The point here is that often the need is a perception of the fraudster and not something that can be directly addressed by an organization.
Rationalization is very important and underappreciated in how it enables fraud. The reality is that a clear majority of people committing fraud think of themselves as decent people. How does a decent person convince themselves that stealing is not bad? Often times they justify the fraud by saying they intended to pay the money back, or that they were entitled to the money because of how hard they worked, or how important their contribution was to growing the organization. The ability of the human mind to make bad actions seem appropriate, or even noble, can be amazing.
The final corner of the triangle is opportunity; and this is one area where the organization can have direct impact. Internal controls are put in place not only to detect fraud, but to increase the perception of detection. Controls need to focus on the mind of the potential perpetrator. Think of the last holiday where you passed three police officers in a 15-mile stretch. I bet you drove closer to the speed limit because your perception of being caught for speeding was increased. The point of controls is to increase the perception of being caught and get people to do the right thing as a result.
Controls such as fraud and expense policies, and policies that remove a presumption of privacy such as the ability of the company to review any emails sent over its network, all serve to increase the perception of being caught. So, do publications that talk about the results of fraud investigations (with appropriate details removed to protect privacy). If people hear about others being caught, they are less likely to think they can get away with fraud, and therefore less likely to commit fraud in the first place.
The bottom line is to create a perception that the organization takes fraud seriously, and the best way to create that perception is for the organization to take fraud seriously. Does your organization take fraud seriously?
While some Baby Boomers are starting to retire, there are many that are still filling upper management positions. As more and more Millennials graduate and settle into their careers, they are bringing different outlooks on life to the workforce. These two generations working together highlight the differences between Baby Boomer bosses and Millennial employees that can stir up conflict.
Baby Boomers have a distinct mentality about work and their positions within their organizations. Many Baby Boomers have an ambitious work ethic that can appear to a Millennial to be a workaholic attitude or a “live to work” attitude. Baby Boomers are also very loyal to the organizations that they work in, more so than their subsequent generations. This loyalty is beneficial because organizations require Baby Boomers to provide their vast array of experience, knowledge, and ethical leadership. However, with their work ethic and experience, Baby Boomers can get critical of, or frustrated with, those who do not share their same attitudes and qualities regarding work.
The fact of the matter is that Millennials have a different attitude surrounding work and how it fits into the grand scheme of life. First off, Millennials prefer to have a work-life balance that accommodates their pursuits of personal hobbies or interests. This attitude of “working to live” can come across as lazy to their bosses. Second, Millennials tend to want more frequent, open communication and feedback from their supervisors than preceding generations have. Supervisors may see this desire for more positive support as burdensome. Also, the Millennials’ inclination to want to talk about everything, even information that is more sensitive or reserved for senior management can be taken as a sign of disrespect. Third, unlike the Baby Boomers who are loyal to the company, Millennials are usually more loyal to an individual or supervisor that they admire. This creates a willingness to leave if the supervisor moves on or no longer works with them on a frequent basis.
Although all of the above Millennial traits can strain relationships with Baby Boomer bosses, Millennials bring some great qualities to an organization. First, Millennials are more accepting of diversity which leads to better communication and the ability to work in groups. Second, they have unique perspectives and can be a great asset when trying to solve problems. Lastly, they have grown up surrounded by technology. Millennials are great at mastering new technologies as they emerge. Organizations can use the unique attributes of both the Baby Boomers and Millennials to minimize the risk of clashing viewpoints.
There are three great ways a company or an organization can satisfy the new attitudes of Millennials while preserving the great qualities of Baby Boomers. First, organizations can encourage communication and problem solving by creating a more open work environment. This can be done through on-boarding processes with new hires to help assimilate them into an organization’s culture. Also, continued socialization after the on-boarding process fulfills the communication desire of Millennials while decreasing the differences that Baby Boomers’ perceive (Anderson, Baur, Griffith & Buckley, 2017). Second, when organizations are willing to add some flexibility into their structure they are likely to see many advantages in relation to their employees such as lower turnover, higher job satisfaction, and greater synergy with Millennials (Myers & Sadaghiani, 2010). Lastly, organizations can build on the technological savvy of Millennials by using the idea of reverse mentoring. Reverse mentoring is the idea of pairing a Millennial with a Baby Boomer to help the Baby Boomer learn how to more efficiently use the technology within the organization. This creates a sense of importance and positive interaction for the Millennial while at the same time allowing the Baby Boomer to teach the Millennial more about how the organization works and what is expected.
At the end of the day, whether you are a Baby Boomer or a Millennial, we should all be thankful because we help define each other, build off of each other’s strengths, and fill in each other’s areas of weakness to create well-rounded organizations and communities. We need to learn how to interact with the purpose of understanding our differences instead of criticizing them.
Anderson, H. J., Baur, J. E., Griffith, J. A., & Buckley, M. R. (2017). What works for you may not work for (Gen)Me: Limitations of present leadership theories for the new generation. The Leadership Quarterly,28(1), 245-260. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2016.08.001.
Myers, K. K., & Sadaghiani, K. (2010). Millennials in the Workplace: A Communication Perspective on Millennials’ Organizational Relationships and Performance. Journal of Business and Psychology,25, 225-238. doi:10.1007/s10869-010-9172-7
Staci White, CPA, is an accountant for Howard, Cunningham, Houchin, & Turner, LLP in Lubbock, Texas. She is a member of the South Plains Chapter and currently serves on the TSCPA Board of Directors.
The Texas Society of CPAs (TSCPA) held its Annual Meeting of Members recently. In addition to taking care of important business, attendees got to hear from great speakers on several topics including fraud, leadership, being yourself, and changes impacting the profession. Membership declines continue, although at a reduced rate of one percent. Changes in membership are occurring, and it was noted that the TSCPA Board of Directors now has more members in their thirties than in their sixties. The Society is solid financially with strong reserves, although the CPE Foundation continues to show strains as the way CPAs obtain continuing education changes.
Two important task forces are beginning work including one on chapters and one on the TSCPA brand. The chapter task force will be focusing on integrating technology and leveraging resources among the chapters and the state; while the brand task force will be focusing on a unified approach including our visual identity, brand standards, and leveraging existing relationships with faculty to expand student and candidate outreach.
If you ever wondered how all that money donated to benevolent funds, political action committees (PACs) and the Accounting Education Foundation (AEF) is handled, you found out at the annual meeting. In addition to all the work TSCPA and chapters did to help members who suffered through Hurricane Harvey last year, the AICPA Benevolent Fund provided over $600,000 in support to members in Texas. The TSCPA CPA-PAC will spend over $400,000 in support of candidates in 2018; but as big as that number sounds, it dwarfs in comparison to many other PACs when you consider the TSCPA CPA-PAC was ranked 152 in campaign contributions in the 2016 election year. Finally, the AEF was able to raise money to set up a $75,000 scholarship fund to provide the Bob Owen scholarship to promising accounting students in perpetuity. Bob Owen was a great leader and contributor to the CPA profession in Texas for decades; and while he will be missed, he will also now always be remembered.
The meeting ended with a substantive question and answer session. Technology allowed attendees to submit questions online, and then other attendees could vote up the questions they felt were the most important and should be addressed. Questions about Peer Review, the PCAOB, getting information to members, and how to become more active in committees and task forces were addressed.
If you missed the annual meeting you missed a lot of great information. In future blogs I will provide you a little more information on topics a couple of our speakers addressed during the meeting.